Updated: January 17, 2019

1. Enter the name of a college or the amount of college loans you may want to consider. You may also adjust the term (typically 10 years), the interest rate (currently 5.05% for federal undergraduate loans), and the voluntary additional monthly payment amount.

After recording the results (monthly payment, total interest, recommended needed income, etc.) of several scenarios, think about these three questions:

• What do you notice?• What do you wonder?What are you curious about that comes from what you notice in the graph?• What might be going on in this graph?Write a catchy headline that captures the graph’s main idea. If your headline makes a claim, tell us what you noticed that supports your claim.

The questions are intended to build on one another, so try to answer them in order. Start with “I notice,” then “I wonder,” and end with “The story this graph is telling is ….” and a catchy headline.

2. Next, join the conversation by clicking on the comment button and posting in the box that opens on the right. (Students 13 and older are invited to comment, although teachers of younger students are welcome to post what their students have to say.) On Wednesday, Jan. 16, our collaborator, the American Statistical Association, will facilitate a live moderated discussion from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. Eastern Time to help students’ understanding go deeper. You might use their responses as models for your own.

3. After you have posted, read what others have said, then respond to someone else by posting a comment. Use the “Reply” button or the @ symbol to address that student directly.

4. On Thursday, Jan. 17, we will provide additional background about relevant statistical concepts and about this interactive graph, which originally appeared elsewhere on nytimes.com. We encourage you to post an additional comment after reading the reveal. How does the original New York Times article and the moderators’ comments help you see the graph differently? Try to incorporate the statistical terms defined in the Stat Nuggets in your response.

_________

• Read our introductory post, which includes information about using the “Notice and Wonder” teaching strategy.• Learn about how and why other teachers are using this feature, and use the 2018-19 “What’s Going On in This Graph?” calendar to plan ahead for the 25 Wednesday releases. • Go to the A.S.A. K-12 website, which includes This is Statistics, resources, professional development, student competitions, curriculum, courses and careers.

_________

Updated: January 17, 2019

Taking out college loans is one of the most significant financial decisions you may ever make. Knowing what you are getting into will affect how you live for years to come.

Based on the costs of attending the college of your choice, the interest rate and term that is available to you, and your projected income upon graduation, the New York Times “College Loan Calculator” with its graph assists you in selecting your best college loan.

The calculator also gives you the option to make voluntary additional loan repayments. If you could save ,500 over the term of the loan by paying a mere extra per month, would you consider it? Would you pay an additional 0 per month if that meant paying off the loan in 10 years instead of 30? These decisions have a significant effect on the total cost of your loan and how long it will take you to repay it. This is the kind of sensitivity analysis (see Stat Nugget below) you can do with the loan calculator.

Maybe because students were trying so many loan structures in the loan calculator, we did not receive many headlines. We’ll be looking for headlines in the responses in the coming days. Use your creativity to create a catchy headline that will draw attention to the effectiveness of the loan calculator.

You may want to think critically about these additional questions:

■ Conduct your own sensitivity analysis. There are four inputs that you can vary: loan amount, interest rate, term and voluntary monthly payments. (See Stat Nuggets for explanations.) For federal loans, the interest rate until July 1, 2019 is 5.05% and the term is 10 years. Vary the loan amount or the additional payments to see how the payments are affected.

■ Make a table with the 5.05% interest rate, 10-year term and no additional payments, but vary the loan amount. Include columns for the resulting monthly payments, total loan payments and recommended needed income. Which loan amount seems best for you? Explain your answer.

■ You can make additional voluntary monthly payments to pay off the loan more quickly and thereby pay less interest. Make another table with the loan amount, interest rate and term held constant. Vary the additional payments, possibly an additional , and 0 per month. See how the monthly payments, total loan payments and the recommended needed income change. Which additional payment amount seems best for you? Explain your answer.

■ Combine these two analyses. What college loan structure is best for you?

■ Given what you have learned about the costs of college loans, what advice would you give to students taking out college loans?

Below in the Stat Nuggets, we define and explain mathematical and finance terms that apply to this graph. Look into the archives to see past Stat Nuggets.

Thank you for participating in “What’s Going On in This Graph?”, which engages you to think critically about graphs and the underlying data. Critical thinking is an essential element of statistics, the science of learning from data. Data visualizations, like these graphs, are an important part of statistics. They help us to understand and learn from data.

Keep noticing and wondering and college loans. We continue to welcome your responses.

We’ve already released next week’s graph about how winter temperatures are changing. Join us on Wednesday, Jan. 23, for live moderation between 9 a.m. - 2 p.m. Eastern Time when you can share what you notice and wonder.

________

Stat Nuggets for “College Loan Calculator?”

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

The purpose of a sensitivity analysis for a mathematical model is to determine which set of input values results in the best or optimal output. Typically, we vary the value for one of the input variables at a time and observe the result. This allows us to determine how sensitive the output is to specific changes in input values. For example, after doing this several times, we can compare the output results. Then we can select the input values of the scenario with the best output, as determined by the analyst.

In the college loan calculator, a sensitivity analysis will allow you to compare different college loan structures. You can vary the input variables of loan amount, interest rate, term and additional monthly payment amounts. The output is the total payment, the payoff period and the income needed so that no more than 20 percent of discretionary income is used for loan repayment.

LOAN AMOUNT, LOAN PRINCIPAL, and DEBT

The loan amount, also called loan principal or debt, is how much is borrowed. The loan amount of ,650 is the national average for undergraduate students at public and nonprofit colleges who graduated in 2017 with debt.

INTEREST and INTEREST RATE

Interest is paid to a lender as a cost of borrowing money. It is calculated as a percentage (interest rate) of the unpaid loan amount. The interest rate for direct subsidized and unsubsidized loans to undergraduate borrowers is 5.05 percent for loans disbursed by July 1, 2018 and before July 1, 2019. The rate for new loans may vary thereafter.

TERM and PAYOFF PERIOD

The term is the number of years the borrower has to repay the loan. The typical term for direct subsidized and unsubsidized loans is 10 years, though the term may be as long as 30 years.

Payoff period is the same as the term unless additional, voluntary loan payments are made, in which case the payoff period will be less than the term. For example, if the borrower pays an additional each month on the average , 650, 5.05%, 10-year loan, the payoff period will only be 8 years, 3 months.

MONTHLY & TOTAL PAYMENT

Monthly payments are usually a fixed amount paid monthly to the lender. Total payment is the sum of all monthly payments over the loan’s term. The payments have two components: interest and loan principal. The college loan calculator lists the monthly payment, total (payment), (total) interest, and (total) loan principal. The graph shows the remaining loan amount (original loan principal minus all monthly loan principal payments) and the remaining interest. Notice that as the remaining loan amount decreases with each monthly payment, the interest payments decrease as well because there is less debt upon which interest must be paid.

ANNUAL INCOME

Annual income is earnings from all sources before taxes.

DISCRETIONARY INCOME

Discretionary income is income after taxes and basic expenses including housing, food and transportation. For federal college loans, it is defined as the amount exceeding 150 percent of the federal poverty level for a single person. For the average ,650, 5.05%, 10-year loan, the borrower should have an annual income in excess of ,025.

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The graphs for “What’s Going On in This Graph?” are selected in partnership with Sharon Hessney. Ms. Hessney wrote the “reveal” and Stat Nuggets with Erica Chauvet, a professor at Waynesburg University in Pennsylvania, and moderates online with Tonya Adkins, who taught math and statistics for twenty years in Charlotte, N.C.

B:

2019年不改料大全结果网站【赵】【盾】【回】【到】【卿】【士】【寮】【后】【把】【先】【蔑】【和】【士】【会】【召】【来】，【命】【令】【两】【人】【到】【秦】【国】【去】【接】【公】【子】【雍】【回】【国】。【先】【蔑】【最】【喜】【欢】【接】【干】【这】【种】【名】【利】【双】【收】【的】【差】【事】【了】，【他】【转】【身】【就】【喜】【滋】【滋】【地】【把】【消】【息】【透】【露】【给】【荀】【林】【父】。 【荀】【林】【父】【却】【一】【点】【也】【高】【兴】【不】【起】【来】，【反】【而】【劝】【他】【道】：“【夫】【人】、【太】【子】【都】【在】【国】【内】，【却】【到】【国】【外】【去】【寻】【求】【新】【君】，【这】【种】【事】【不】【可】【能】【成】【功】。【您】【不】【如】【称】【病】【辞】【掉】【这】【个】【任】【务】，【否】【则】【将】【大】【祸】【临】

【看】【着】【那】【颗】【蓝】【色】【的】【宝】【石】，【行】【星】【吞】【噬】【者】【眼】【睛】【发】【亮】，【不】【知】【不】【觉】【之】【间】，【口】【水】【已】【经】【流】【了】【一】【地】【了】。 “【喂】【喂】【喂】，【老】【爸】，【你】【给】【我】【注】【意】【点】【啊】。【好】【丢】【脸】【的】【说】。”【伽】【娜】【塔】【看】【着】【自】【己】【老】【子】【这】【个】【样】【子】，【忍】【不】【住】【冲】【着】【行】【星】【吞】【噬】【者】【喊】【到】。 “【额】，【咳】【咳】，【那】【个】，【最】【近】【太】【饿】【了】，【所】【以】【看】【什】【么】【都】【觉】【得】【想】【吃】。【呵】【呵】，【呵】【呵】【呵】。”【行】【星】【吞】【噬】【者】【干】【笑】【一】【声】。

【这】【段】【时】【间】【就】【和】【一】【场】【梦】【一】【样】，【一】【场】【梦】【幻】【的】【婚】【礼】，【陪】【在】【自】【己】【身】【边】【的】【人】【是】【冯】【浩】，【可】【现】【在】【天】【天】【陪】【在】【自】【己】【身】【边】【的】【人】【却】【是】【齐】【皓】【天】，【她】【成】【为】【了】【齐】【太】【太】，【虽】【然】【没】【有】【办】【婚】【礼】，【但】【两】【个】【人】【已】【经】【成】【为】【合】【法】【夫】【妻】，【齐】【皓】【天】【说】【是】【要】【补】【办】【一】【个】【婚】【礼】，【昭】【告】【天】【下】，【可】【边】【萧】【晓】【觉】【得】【不】【用】，【毕】【竟】【她】【已】【经】【经】【历】【了】【一】【场】【婚】【礼】，【最】【后】【虽】【然】【成】【了】【虚】【假】【的】，【但】【边】【萧】【晓】【不】【想】【再】

“……【把】【你】【的】【力】【量】【借】【给】【我】！” 【汤】【贤】【的】【语】【气】【不】【容】【置】【疑】。 “【我】【说】【了】【你】【受】【不】【住】！”【温】【蒂】【眉】【头】【紧】【皱】。 “【受】【不】【住】【也】【要】【受】！【岂】【能】【坐】【以】【待】【毙】！” 【温】【蒂】【妮】【断】【然】【道】：“【不】【给】【你】，【我】【要】【带】【着】【你】【一】【起】【转】【世】【重】【生】。” 【汤】【贤】【愤】【然】【闭】【目】【不】【在】【言】【语】，【温】【蒂】【妮】【的】【身】【体】【却】【开】【始】【发】【光】。 “【不】【可】！”【温】【蒂】【妮】【惊】【叫】。 【汤】【贤】【竟】【是】【要】【强】【行】【动】2019年不改料大全结果网站【两】【人】【坐】【电】【梯】【上】【楼】，【裴】【悦】【然】【拿】【着】【包】【不】【说】【话】，【韩】【唯】【英】【逗】【她】【说】：“【怎】【么】【了】，【很】【紧】【张】？” “【对】【啊】，【我】【头】【一】【次】【见】【家】【长】。” “【放】【心】【吧】，【他】【们】【肯】【定】【会】【喜】【欢】【你】【的】。” 【电】【梯】【缓】【缓】【上】【升】，【停】【在】【了】【八】【楼】，【韩】【唯】【英】【提】【着】【一】【袋】【子】【的】【礼】【品】【出】【门】，【抬】【抬】【下】【巴】【让】【裴】【悦】【然】【摁】【门】【铃】。 【没】【过】【一】【会】【就】【有】【人】【高】【喊】【着】【过】【来】【开】【门】，【一】【个】【和】【颜】【悦】【色】【的】【中】【年】【女】【人】

【夏】【阳】【懵】【懂】【的】【表】【情】，【让】【人】【能】【感】【受】【到】，【这】【可】【不】【是】【那】【个】【阎】【罗】【殿】【杀】【伐】【果】【断】【的】【夏】【阳】，【而】【是】【一】【个】【什】【么】【都】【不】【懂】【得】【小】【孩】【子】。 【他】【的】【身】【上】【脏】【脏】【的】，【衣】【服】【也】【都】【是】【破】【旧】【的】，【穿】【的】【就】【像】【是】【街】【边】【的】【乞】【丐】，【没】【有】【一】【个】【人】【愿】【意】【施】【舍】【他】【点】【什】【么】，【没】【有】【一】【个】【人】【愿】【意】【离】【他】【近】【一】【点】【给】【他】【温】【暖】。 【饿】【着】【肚】【子】【的】【夏】【阳】，【就】【这】【么】【待】【在】【大】【街】【的】【旁】【边】，【看】【着】【这】【过】【路】【中】【来】【往】【的】

【欧】【阳】【雪】【走】【了】【进】【来】，【她】【的】【美】【貌】，【立】【即】【让】【整】【个】【厅】【堂】【都】【为】【之】【一】【亮】。 【南】【极】【仙】【翁】【立】【即】【把】【注】【意】【力】【都】【放】【在】【了】【欧】【阳】【雪】【身】【上】，【那】【样】【子】【就】【好】【像】【鹰】【隼】【看】【到】【了】【猎】【物】。 【不】【知】【道】【的】【人】，【还】【以】【为】【南】【极】【仙】【翁】【为】【老】【不】【尊】，【有】【某】【方】【面】【的】【嗜】【好】。 【欧】【阳】【雪】【被】【老】【仙】【翁】【看】【得】，【都】【有】【些】【尴】【尬】【了】。 【幸】【亏】【南】【极】【仙】【翁】【的】【名】【声】【极】【好】，【在】【场】【的】【道】【人】【又】【都】【是】【明】【白】【人】，【大】【伙】

【将】【人】【类】【脑】【袋】【中】【的】【控】【制】【芯】【片】【全】【部】【取】【出】【之】【后】，【人】【类】【恢】【复】【了】【意】【识】。 【那】【些】【海】【怪】【的】【控】【制】【芯】【片】【并】【没】【有】【被】【移】【出】，【这】【样】【可】【以】【防】【止】【海】【怪】【对】【人】【类】【发】【动】【进】【攻】。 【人】【类】【的】【深】【海】【战】【舰】【开】【始】【撤】【退】，【绿】【皮】【乘】【坐】【着】【深】【海】【舰】【艇】，【让】【深】【海】【航】【母】【直】【接】【回】【去】。 【在】【深】【海】【战】【舰】【中】，【绿】【皮】【下】【潜】【到】【鱼】【人】【的】【族】【地】【中】。 【这】【些】【鱼】【人】【从】【刚】【才】【开】【始】【就】【在】【冲】【着】【他】【跪】【拜】，【因】【此】【绿】